Multilab Direct Replication of Flavell, Beach, and Chinsky (1966)

Emily M. Elliott, Candice C. Morey, Angela M. AuBuchon, Nelson Cowan, Chris Jarrold, Eryn J. Adams, Meg Attwood, Büşra Bayram, Stefen Beeler-Duden, Taran Y. Blakstvedt, Gerhard Büttner, Thomas Castelain, Shari Cave, Davide Crepaldi, Eivor Fredriksen, Bret A. Glass, Andrew J. Graves, Dominic Guitard, Stefanie Hoehl, Alexis Hosch, Stéphanie Jeanneret, Tanya N. Joseph, Chris Koch, Jaroslaw R. Lelonkiewicz, Gary Lupyan, Amalia McDonald, Grace Meissner, Whitney Mendenhall, David Moreau, Thomas Ostermann, Asil Ali Özdoğru, Francesca Padovani, Sebastian Poloczek, Jan Phillip Röer, Christina C. Schonberg, Christian K. Tamnes, Martin J. Tomasik, Beatrice Valentini, Evie Vergauwe, Haley A. Vlach, Martin Voracek

Work by Flavell, Beach, and Chinsky indicated a change in the spontaneous production of overt verbalization behaviors when comparing young children (age 5) with older children (age 10). Despite the critical role that this evidence of a change in verbalization behaviors plays in modern theories of cognitive development and working memory, there has been only one other published near replication of this work. In this Registered Replication Report, we relied on researchers from 17 labs who contributed their results to a larger and more comprehensive sample of children. We assessed memory performance and the presence or absence of verbalization behaviors of young children at different ages and determined that the original pattern of findings was largely upheld: Older children were more likely to verbalize, and their memory spans improved. We confirmed that 5- and 6-year-old children who verbalized recalled more than children who did not verbalize. However, unlike Flavell et al., substantial proportions of our 5- and 6-year-old samples overtly verbalized at least sometimes during the picture memory task. In addition, continuous increase in overt verbalization from 7 to 10 years old was not consistently evident in our samples. These robust findings should be weighed when considering theories of cognitive development, particularly theories concerning when verbal rehearsal emerges and relations between speech and memory.

Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, Department of Cognition, Emotion, and Methods in Psychology
External organisation(s)
Louisiana State University, Cardiff University, Boys Town National Research Hospital, University of Missouri-Columbia, University of Bristol, Üsküdar University, University of Virginia, University of Oslo (UiO), Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Center for Individual Development and Adaptive Education of Children at Risk (IDeA), Universidad de Costa Rica, University of Auckland, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Université de Genève, George Fox University, Universität Witten/Herdecke
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science
Publication date
Peer reviewed
Austrian Fields of Science 2012
501005 Developmental psychology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
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